As elevator or elevator we now understand all that vertical transport system designed to move or transport people or goods between different levels of a building or underground construction. The first references to this type of devices that exist date from Roman times. Thus, the architect Vitrubio describes a system of counterweights and pulley operated with crank that is considered precedent of the present elevators. The system, for example, operated at the Coliseum in Rome to allow access of gladiators and animals to the arena.
In ancient Egypt and ancient China, lifting systems were also fitted with ramps and ropes, and in France in the eighteenth century, there is evidence that King Louis XV installed a rudimentary elevator moved by an archaic system of pulleys and counterweights in the palace of Versailles. In the imperial Russia also operated similar systems that, for example, were installed in Winter Palace and other residences of the old czars.
All in all, the first mechanical forklift did not run until 1830 in the English town of Derby. Since then, elevators or forklifts moved by hydraulic power or steam and, as early as 1853, the first elevator with emergency brake appears in an exhibition held in New York. Four years later, in 1857, the first elevator for people was installed in the EV Haughwout department store in New York. The elevator, moved by a steam engine, rose up to 450 kg at a speed of twenty meters per second. Today, there are lifts that double the speed of that first public elevator.
From the nineteenth century; The elevators have maintained a constant evolution in its design, security and benefits but the system of the elevators that today we know and commercialize companies like Astarlifts is similar to the one of those first equipment of the years of the industrial revolution. The main parts of an elevator are as follows:
In itself, the cabin of an elevator is a drawer resistant to the impacts, fireproof, luminous, airy, safe and, according to the regulations currently in force, adapted to the use of people with disabilities. The floor must be non-slip and the security is completed with doors - obligatory since 1985 - that prevent access to the hole through which the elevator circulates, an alarm for emergency situations and a photocell that does not allow doors to close early . The mechanisms of opening of the cabin are diverse and, thus, we can find cabins of central opening; side; Of two, three or four leaves; Automatic or manual. At all times, the user must know in which floor is and therefore, always installed in the cabins some type of window open to the egg or a position indicator. Often, both solutions coexist. The set is completed with an internal pushbutton that allows the user to order the system in which plant to stop. The keypad must be installed at a height suitable for wheelchair users. It is also usual to install an interior mirror in the cabin to increase the feeling of spaciousness, something that people who are afraid of indoors are grateful for. In its exterior, the cabin is reinforced by an iron frame or chassis that surrounds it. Pull the pull cables from the system.
It is present in most electric lifts and is a mass made of iron or concrete and rectangular in shape with equal weight to the cabin plus half of the maximum permissible load. Its presence allows the engine not to be forced to move the total load of the cabin with the consequent energy saving.
Cabins and counterweights are guided by rails, cables or guides. Until the sixties of last century and for reasons of space, the counterweight often circulated through the yard of lights of the farm and not through the elevator shaft, something that does not happen today. At the origin, especially in industrial elevators installed in coal mines, the guides were wooden profiles that were anchored in U-shaped guides, but today T-shaped metal profiles are used that fit in the chassis that surrounds the cabin . Friction and noise are limited by slides and skids that cushion the passage of the cab frame onto the guides.
In the first known elevators, the cabins were fastened by archaic hemp or esparto ropes that were later replaced and with the progress of the systems by first metal chains and metallic cables afterwards. At present, the metallic cables are the dominant system and, to date, the cables used for securing cabs and counterweights are always of Warringtong composition and their number and diameter always depends on the load we intend to carry. The most modern fastening systems designed for lifts have replaced the classic metal cables with flexible belts; But its use is not yet very widespread and is confined almost exclusively to lifts where the engine is located at the top of the shaft and not installed in an engine room annexed and built for that purpose.
The tractor unit of an elevator is the mechanical device that generates the energy necessary to produce the movement and the stop of the elevator. It always consists of the same three parts: machine, electric motor and brake. The motor is always designed specifically for each elevator and develops a rotational movement that varies depending on each system between 700 and 1400 revolutions per minute. It is connected in any case to the machine by coupling and by means of a reducer system that transfers to the traction sheave the energy necessary for the cabin to develop the desired speed of movement. The displacement is generated by adhesion between the pulley and the cables, both linked to the cabin and the counterweight. The tractor assembly completes the brake, which is an electromagnetic system that causes the equipment to stop when the power supply to the engine ceases.
The speed limiter
It is a system formed by two pulleys, one located in the upper part of the elevator shaft or in the engine room and another installed in the pit. Both move in solidarity with the cabin by means of a cable connected to it. The top mounted pulley detects any overspeed of the cab, locks the limiter cable and pulls it out of the lever set that completes the wedging system that is located in the chassis of the cab. In this way, the speed is not triggered.
It is a set of levers and wedges of the frame that allows the emergency braking of the cabin. The limiter pulls the cable, the cable pulls the levers, the levers actuate the wedges and the frame is nailed to the cab guides if necessary.
Switchgear and installation of hollow
The switchboard is the true brain of every elevator: its devices process a series of electrical impulses that come to it to send others and make things happen and the system works properly. The process works as follows: the user of the elevator indicates by the button to where he wants to go and closes a circuit that reaches the switchboard. The current pulses sent by the calling circuits are translated by the different plant relays that have been installed. The elevator shaft is the vertical space constructed and closed in which one or more cabins are housed and in which the pit is also enabled, an empty space between the floor and the cab and in which a damping spring .
In Spain, it is estimated that there are now about 857,000 lifts and is therefore the second European country after Italy, which exceeds 900,000, with the largest number of lifts installed. All these equipments require adequate maintenance because only this way can guarantee an adequate operation and the due security for the users. Therefore, and when you need to undertake the installation of one of this type of devices, it is always necessary to have the support and the guarantee of companies with proven solvency. Only then will you get the results you want when installing or maintaining an elevator in your home, business or industry. Companies like Astarlifts , in this sense, are a full and complete guarantee to meet their complex needs that may result. Trust us if you need a lift for your business or home. Do not play it.